Introduction This study aims to test the casual model of gender, family atmosphere, financial status, resilience, and risk-taking behaviour of Thai adolescents. The study also examines the direct and indirect effects among variables. Methods The sample for this study consisted of 2715 adolescents studying at secondary schools in four regions (the central, southern, North, and Northeast) of Thailand during January to March, 2009. The model was tested using the LISREL program. Results Data analysis shows that the proposed model was fit with the empirical data well (c2 (7)¼12.158, p¼0.095; GFI¼0.998; AGFI¼0.996; RMSEA¼0.017). When considering the influence of the study variables, the results demonstrated as follows: (1) Male reported being resilient less than females and engaging in risk-taking behaviour more than females (p<0.01); (2) The financial status had the positively direct effect on resilience and the negatively direct effect on risk-taking behaviour. The financial status also had the indirect effects on risk-taking behaviours through resilience (p<0.01); (3). The family atmosphere had the positively direct effect on resilience but had the indirect effects on the risk-taking behaviour through resilience (p<0.01); and (4) The resilience had the negatively direct effect on the risk-taking behaviour (p<0.01). Conclusion The information from this study could be applied to develop the programs to promote resilience for adolescents to prevent risk-taking behaviour.